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Terminology Relating To Book Printing

Acrobat: Adobe software that embodies the PDF format. Allows users to view and manage documents in an application independent manner and on a computer platform in an independent manner.

Spine: The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called backbone.

Bitmap: In computer imaging, the electronic representation of a page indicating the position of every possible spot (zero or one).

Bleed: An extra amount of printed image which extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.

Brightness: In paper, the brilliance or reflectance of the paper.

Case: In bookbinding, the covers of a hardbound book.

CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black): The subtractive process colours used in colour printing. Black is added to enhance colour and contrast.

Coated Paper: Paper having a surface coating which produces a smooth finish. Surfaces vary from eggshell to glossy.

Dots per Inch (dpi): A measure of the resolution of a screen image or printed page.

EPS (Encapsulated PostScript): A file format used to transfer graphic images within compatible applications. A file containing structured PostScript codes, comments and a screen display image.

Font: In composition, a complete set of letters, numbers, punctuation, etc, of a given size and design.

Galley Proof: A proof of text copy before being made into pages.

Grain: In papermaking, the direction in which most fibres lie which corresponds with the direction in which the paper is made on a paper machine.

Hard Copy: The permanent visual record of the output of a computer or printer on a substrate.

Hard Proof: A proof on paper or other substrate as distinguished from a soft proof which is an image on a computer screen.

Imposition: During image assembly, the positioning of images on a signature so that after printing, folding and cutting all pages will appear in the proper sequence.

Justify: In composition, to space out lines uniformly to line up left and right.

Lamination: A plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.

Layout: The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece.

Make-ready: In printing, all work done to set up a press for printing.

OCR (Optical Character Recognition): An electronic means of scanning copy and converting the scanned image to an electronic equivalent. The ability to read printed characters and convert it to digitized files that can be saved and edited as a text file.

Offset: In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate.

Opacity: The property of paper which minimizes the show through of printing from the back side or next sheet.

Pagination: In computerized typesetting, the process of performing page makeup automatically.

Palette: The collection of colour or shades available to a graphic system or program.

Pantone Matching Systems (PMS): Colour charts that have over 700 pre-printed colour patches of blended inks, used to identify, display or define special colours.

PDF (Portable Document Format): A proprietary format for the transfer of designs across multiple computer platforms. PDF is a universal electronic file format, modeled after the postscript language, and is device and resolution independent. Documents in the PDF format can be viewed, navigated and printed from any computer regardless of the software or fonts used to create the original.

Pixel: Short for Picture Element. A pixel is the smallest resolvable point of a raster image. It is the basic unit of digital imaging.

PostScript: A page description language developed by Adobe Systems to describe an image for printing. It handles both text and graphics.

Pre-Flighting: In digital pre-press, the test used to evaluate or analyze every component needed to produce a printing job. Pre-flight confirms the type of disk being submitted, the color gamut, colour breaks, art, illustrations, photos, layout files, screen fonts, printer fonts, eps or tiff files, page sizes, printer drivers and crops marks, etc.

Raster Image Processor (RIP): In digital imaging, a combination of computer software and hardware that controls the printing process by calculating the bitmaps of images and instructing a printing device to create the images.

Register: In printing, fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each other.

Resolution: In electronic imaging, the quantification of printout quality using the number of spots per inch.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue): The primary additive colors used in display devices and scanners. Commonly used to refer to the color space, mixing system or monitor in color computer graphics.

Saddle Stitch: In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.

Signature: In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded.

Spot: Smallest visible point that can be displayed or printed. The smallest diameter of light that a scanner can detect or printer can image.

Substrate: Any material that can be printed on, such as paper, plastic and fabric.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF): A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. It is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs.

Trim Marks: In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page.